Sambhram Blogs

What is Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with the study of simulating human intelligence processes by machines, especially computers so that the machine can behave, think as well make decisions like a human. The term Artificial Intelligence was framed by McCarthy in 1956. Artificial Intelligence becomes the trend in today’s world of tech. We have to keep face with innovations in Artificial Intelligence. It is one of the booming technologies of computer science. It creates a new revolution in the Industry by producing intelligence machines. The Artificial Intelligence is used widely across the world.

It is used in self-driving cars, virtual doctor, playing games, industrial automation, robot manufacturing, self-flying planes, autonomous aircraft, driverless electric flying car, etc. AI becomes most fascinating technique. It has great scope in the future. The objective of AI is to make a machine to behave like a human. The word Artificial means “man-made” and Intelligence means “thinking power”, therefore AI stands for “a man-made thinking power”.  That is to create a programmed machine which can work with its own intelligence unlike the traditional way of writing and executing programs to perform the given task.

Need of Artificial Intelligence

It is important to understand why Artificial Intelligence is required. Some of the reasons are given below: We can develop software or devices that can solve real-world problems very accurately without any difficulties. Some of the real-world problems are health issues, marketing, traffic issues etc. We can develop personal virtual assistant, like Cortana, Google Assistant, Siri, etc. We can create Robots that can work in an environment where in survival of human beings are under risk. Such as doing research in under deep Ocean, space, planets etc. AI created a path for emerging technologies, new devices and new opportunities.

Objectives of Artificial Intelligence

The objectives of Artificial Intelligence are as follows:

  1. Mimic human intelligence
  2. Resolve Knowledge-intensive jobs
  3. An intelligent connection of perception and action
  4. Constructing machines to perform jobs which needs human intelligence such as:
    • Theorem proving
    • Playing games like chess
    • Performing complicated surgical operation
    • Driving vehicles in traffic
  1. Developing machines that can exhibit intelligent behaviour, learn new things by itself, demonstrate, explain, and can advise to its user.

What comprises of Artificial Intelligence

AI is emerged from different fields. It is very much important to understand what is intelligence and what it is composed of. Intelligence is avital part of human brain and it is composed of Reasoning, learning, problem-solving perception, language understanding, etc. To accomplish these properties, the AI needs the following disciplines:

  • Mathematics
  • Biology
  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Computer Science
  • Neurons Study
  • Statistics

Working of AI

The important component for the working of AI is Machine Learning. The Machine learning is a part of AI. AI needs specialized hardware and software for writing as well training machine learning algorithms. Languages such as Python, R and java are widely used for writing coding. The AI machines reads from large amount of labelled training data and analyse them for correlations and patterns. By using these patterns, it can predict about the future states. Using this method, the image recognition tool can identify and describe objects in images by reviewing millions of examples. AI focus on the skills such and learning, reasoning and self-corrections.

Learning Processes

The learning processes concentrate on obtaining data and creating rules for how to turn the data into information. Reasoning processes: The Reasoning Process concentrates on selecting the correct algorithm to obtain a required outcome.  Self-correction processes:  The Self-correction process is created for continually fine-tune algorithms as well to make sure it delivers the accurate results.

Importance of AI

AI provides enterprise insights into its operations. AI works better than human being in case of repetitive and detail oriented jobs. AI executes the jobs quickly and with relative few errors.AI opened the door to the new business opportunities for some of the large scale companies. Some of the transport companies uses this technique for connecting riders to taxis. Today Uber becomes on the largest companies in the world adopted thistechnology. Uber uses machine learning technique to know when people need rides in specific areas that helps them proactively to get drivers on the road before the people needed. Google also uses machine learning technique to predict how people use their services and then to improve them. In 2017, the Google’s CEO, Mr. Sudar Pichai, announced that Google would operate as an “AI first “company. Tesla uses this technique for its self-driving car.

Today all most all successful companies using AI for the growth and development of their companies. The AI ware is spread almost everywhere.  Tesla and Space X CEO Elon Musk has claimed that Artificial Intelligence will be ‘vastly smarter’ than any human and would overtake us by 2025. Elan Musk has started the artificial intelligence research lab Open AI in 2015 with the goal of developing artificial general intelligence (AGI) that can learn and master several disciplines.

Advantages of AI

Technologies such as Artificial Neural Network and Deep Learning are growing because of the capabilities of AI to process large values of data quickly and make predictions very accurately than human beings. Some of the advantages are given below:

  • Work well at detail-oriented jobs
  • Work faster for data-heavy tasks
  • Provides consistent results
  • AI-powered virtual agents are always available

Disadvantages of AI

Following are some of the disadvantages of using AI.

  • It is Expensive
  • It Requires deep technical expertise
  • Only knows what it’s been shown
  • Lack of ability to generalize from one task to another.

A coin has two sides. The technology should be used carefully.

Elon Musk described AI as an ‘existential threat’ to humanity.

The Covid-19 pandemic brought a dynamic shift in the global educational system; lockdowns in phases led to the shutdown of physical classrooms and online education became the best available order. Though online learning has managed to keep education alive during these difficult times, it has not been able to completely replace it. Both online and offline education have their own separate set of advantages and disadvantages; the latter mode of teaching facilitate physically to be with the teacher, having a say at the mind level to receive knowledge, seeking feedback and seeing their response. The traditional way of taking class, which is called the classroom atmosphere, has become a lot easier to manage time because students go to class everyday if not a little less. They have more time to meet their friends and teachers; many of them learn something significant through face to face interaction or the hands on approach that is provided by teachers and peers while attending classes. Online classes might be effective for some students but many students learn by doing, seeing, and being able to interact with the teachers. It can’t be denied learning is a mind game and meeting of two minds: the teacher and the students.

Highlights of Key Differences between Online vs. Offline Education

Particulars

Online Education

Offline Education

Method of Teaching

Digitalised tools and method of teaching 

Transformation happens in method of teaching 

Cost and Time

Cost-effective and time-saving

More expensive and consumes more time

Location

Virtual classrooms

Physical classrooms

Flexibility

 Flexible schedule 

Fixed and strict schedule subject to changes also

Communication

Communication and association happens digitally

Communications and collaboration happen face-to-face

Pace of Learning

Students articulate the pace of learning

Teachers assess pace of learning and accordingly take steps to reform the delivery system

Level of Commitment

Most students remain casuals to their studies

Many students remain serious and committed to their studies



 

Cannes Film Festival is a biggest celebration of the Cinema World which brings together more than 12,000 Cinephiles from Hollywood Stars, Directors and the Film Industry elite to Global Media and Film enthusiasts. It is undoubtedly a platform which showcases exclusivity, celebrity and Cinema. Cannes is reinventing itself every year with the glamour and creativity.I really observe this Global Red-Carpet Event as massive amplificatory of ideas. Being in academic teaching Marketing, I really believe ideas and creativity brings chaos in the Market and chaos always propel audience (Consumer)to do brain storming which ultimately leads to decision making. Certainly, advertising at Cannes Croisette can do wonders for Global Brand Presence. It is the town Square of Creativity, Marketing and Media. Companies do their best to design Compelling Global Marketing Campaigns which can boost brand awareness on International Scale and expect reward as huge RoI. Advertising spaces are highly competitive in CANNES because all the global companies fight to snatch a place by various ways so that global coverage will be guaranteed. Companies market their brands through print advertising (leaflet, flyers, posters etc.), digital screen and outdoor advertising and balcony banners. Premium brands hunt for hotel advertising where companies can sponsor or gift luxurious suits to the elite community from the global film fraternity and ad media. They are the target markets for all luxurious products and services. Sponsoring big events like film festivals means major brand visibility as well as providing many opportunities for brands to promote their products and services through traditional and digital marketing methods all along the festival. Companies like HP, Kering, L’Oreal, Renault and Mastercard and many more are quite aggressive to market their products at Global Arena in Cannes. There is a great scope for traditional advertising methods which, we assume, are gradually vanishing due to digitalization. Marketers just need to ensure that marketing content is localized and should be strong enough to be dealt with global audience. I still remember renowned actress Shabana Azmi and Smita Patil presented Indian culture in Sarees at Cannes; not only products of the companies but also culture and values can be presented ubiquitously in Cannes Film Festival. Companies which are craving out for new identity, surely Cannes are a platform for them. Stay Connected……. Good Luck



 

Unix is very popular and it is widely used across the globe. Since the applications of
Unix are increasing, the demand for Unix professionals is also increasing day by
day. One who likes to fast-track their carrier must strongly consider Unix. Because
Unix is one of the fastest-growing technologies. The demand for Unix professionals
is huge. Unix Professionals have plenty of job opportunities. The Unix professionals
are highly paid as well.
Let us have a look at the Job opportunities for Unix Professionals. The Unix
Professionals can work as a System Engineer, Unix System Administrator, Unix
infrastructure Administrator, Unix Analyst Engineer, Unix production Support
Engineer, Unix technical Support Engineer, Product Support, Senior Unix Engineer,
Senior System Administrator, Linux Engineer, Linux Administrator, etc. Let us have a
look at the different versions of Unix. The influence of Unix in academic circles led to
the large-scale adoption of Unix by commercial start-ups. Many companies
developed their versions of Unix.All the versions have similarities. The most popular
versions(Flavours) of Unix include:

 AIX
 HP-UX.
 SunOS and Solaris.
 IRIX.
 Digital UNIX (formerly OSF/1)
 NeXTSTEP and OpenStep.
 SCO Unix.
 Linux etc.

Linux is a very popular and widely used Unix flavour. Unix flvours are also called
Distribution in short Distro. Some of the well-known Linux distributions include:

 Red Hat
 Fedora.
 Debian.
 Arch Linux.
 Centos.
 Elementary OS.
 Gentoo Linux.
 Ubuntu.

 Kali Linux.
 Android

Android is a Linux-based platform for mobile application development. Initially, it was
developed by Android incorporation later purchased by Google in 2005. Kali Linux is
the hacker’s choice. There is no better distro than kali Linux for ethical hacking
purposes. Ubuntu is the beginner’s choice. Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distro
across the Globe. It becomes the first choice for everyone, especially for beginners.
The reason is that it is a very accessible and more stable distro.

Let us discuss some of the applications areas of Linux: today more than 90
percent of the world’s supercomputers, more than 80 percent of all smartphones,
millions of desktop computers, and more than 70 percent of all web servers use
Linux as their operating system. Linux is used in self-driving cars, refrigerators,
Flights, etc.NASA is also using Linux. Initially,NASA used the Windows Operating
system, they faced lot of security issues. They decided to switch to Linux because
they need a stable and reliable operating system.

Linux becomes the choice of the scientific community’s operating system.
CERN’s Large Hadron Collider is controlled by Linux. NASA and SpaceX ground
stations use Linux. DNA-sequencing lab technicians use Linux. In fact, for
applications that require absolute stability, Linux is the obvious choice. The reason is
that the entire OS is open source and can be easily customized for each experiment.
Google uses thousands upon thousands of Linux Severs for its operations. Google
Android phones are Linux-based. Google Chrome, the application we use to browse
and download things is backed by Linux operating system.Facebook is using a
version of Linux called LAMP stack for developing their Site.Financial organizations
such as New York Stock Exchange, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, and the Tokyo
Stock Exchange are also relying heavily on Linux.The extensive areas of application
of Linux have created a huge demand for Linux expertise.
What is LAMP?
LAMP is an open-source Web development platform that uses Linux as the
operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database

management system, and PHP/Perl/Python as the object-oriented scripting
language. The LAMP is referred to as a LAMP stack because the platform has four
layers. LAMP would offer one of the most compatible ways to develop enterprise-
level web apps because of its flexibility, customization, and cost-effectiveness. When
you want to create and keep up big business-related sites, applications, and servers,
The LAMP stack development is a solid option for any company to develop
economically.

What is Unix?
UNIX is a multiuser computer Operating system. All computers have operating
systems. An operating system is system software that acts as an interface
between a computer and a user. By acting as an interface, it plays the role of
resource manager and provides the services of all the resources like CPU, memory,
and I/O devices available to the users’ programs. In short, an operating system
provides a convenient environment for the users to interact with the computer. So
without an operating system, a computer cannot function similar to the fact that a
human body becomes dysfunctional without a properly working brain. An Operating
System may thus be viewed as an organized collection of programs consisting of
procedures for operating a computer and for providing a convenient environment for
the execution of programs. Windows operating system is also very popular and
widely used. It is more user-friendly and easy to use. It has a well-designed graphical
user interface. It is used in most personal computers. But when it comes to the IT
industry Unix/Linux is more preferable to Windows. Compared to Windows
Unix/Linux is more secure, reliable, and portable.
Examples of Operating Systems
UNIX Operating System, MS-DOS, WINDOWS, OS/360,Linux,Mac OS (Apple
Computers and iPhone), Android(Mobile Operating system), etc.
References:
1. https://www.linux.org

2. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/
3. https://www.computerhope.com/
4. http://www.linfo.org/
5. https://www.thegeekstuff.com/
6. https://www.tecmint.com/
7. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/
8. http://www.opensource.org
9. https://distrowatch.com/
10. https://en.wikipedia.org/
11. https://www.guru99.com/
12. http://www.informit.com/
13. https://www.digitalocean.com/community/
14. http://linuxcommand.org/
15. https://www.javatpoint.com/linux-gzip

International Conference on Economic Advocacy for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: Post COVID-19

One-day International Conference on ‘Economic Advocacy for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: Post COVID-19’ organized by the Sambhram Academy of Management Studies, School of Management, Bengaluru, Karnataka, recently. More than twenty-five research papers presented by authors from various countries. Speakers from different countries addressed the audience and deliberated on the topic. During Inaugural Function, Prof K.C. Mishra, Principal of the Institute gave an introductory note on MSMEs and its contribution to the economy during COVID-19 and also expressed that this burning situation gave a thought to organizing the event. He welcomed the audience on behalf of Sambhram Academy of Management Studies, School of Management.

Ms. Rema Narayanswamy introduced Prof Zuraidah Sanusi, Director, Institute of Leadership Development, University Technology, Malaysia, and welcomed her to deliver the Theme Address. Prof Zuraidah Sanusi thanked the School of Management for giving her the opportunity and started her presentation on Business and Economic Challenges Post COVID-19: Promoting Greater Resilience in SMEs. She gave an outlook on the world of business due to COVID–19 and said that COVID-19 affected all the developed and developing economies.   It not only affected the industry but also changed the culture. MSMEs are the backbone of Malaysia which covers 98.5% of business establishments. They rely a lot on SMEs and have contributed 38.9% share of GDP, 17.9% share to exports, and 48.4% share to employment in Malaysia. MSMEs in the agriculture industry faced many challenges during COVID -19.

Mr. Niraj K Verma, Chief General Manager, NABARD, Karnataka Regional Office, Bangalore who was the Chief Guest deliberated on the ‘Importance of MSMEs to Indian Economy’ and also highlighted its shortcomings in the context of the Indian Economy. MSMEs account for 95% share of the Indian Economy and employ 110 million people. Many enterprises had to down their shutters permanently or temporarily reduced the labor force while coping

The Government of India should focus on the development of MSME clusters for resource optimization and policy framework regarding food processing, textiles, electronic, and farm products. The Uttar Pradesh Government has come out with One District One Product’ for the MSME sector and now all attempts are being made to replicate the same in other States too and States are also giving importance to the cluster development approach. It has also come out with distinct schemes like Guaranteed Trust Fund on Micro and Small Firms, Credit-Link Capital Subsidies for Technology Up-Gradation; Micro and Small cluster development scheme for fund generation of traditional industries, and scheme for promotion of innovation, rural industries, and entrepreneurship. The government also has recently launched the PLI scheme (Production Linked Incentive) which will help the country to become Manufacturing Hub in the World. The Government and all the stakeholders are trying to strengthen the accessibility of institutional charters for the MSME sector.

Recently, the Indian Government announced the inclusion of retail and wholesale trade with MSMEs to strengthen the sector. Khadi and Village Industries Commission have secured trademark registration in three countries namely: Mexico, UAE, and Bhutan so that its brands can be recognized globally and the Government of India allocates funds to boost this sector expecting rapid growth in the future. NABARD which is an apex organization for ensuring credit flow to rural areas is trying to encourage the rural people to set up hall for producer companies. It has also launched various skill development programs to bridge the rural and urban gaps.

The Guest of Honor, Mr. G R Akadas, Director, IEDS, MSME Development Institute, Ministry of MSMEs, Government of India, Bangalore briefed about the delayed payments act in MSMEs. There is a shortfall of skilled labor in the market and the Government is focusing to train labors through various NGOs and institutions. Government is selecting some clusters and turning them into apprenticeship training centers which are already happening in Karnataka with the help of Ministry of Skill Development. with closure.

The Chairperson, Prof. Kaklali Mukhopadhyay, Professor, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune and Adjunct Professor and Senior Fellow, Department of Agricultural Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada observed the growth of MSMEs over the years while there is stability in the employment generated and sustained growth. Its contribution to GDP and manufacturing output has continued to decline over the past ten years leading to a decline in productivity levels primarily in the micro-enterprises because of a lack of options having access to finance, leading to lower efficiency and global competitiveness. She presented her work on the ‘Impact of COVID-19 on MSMEs’

Professor Arup Mitra, the next panelist, shared  his findings on the informal sector and began by reflecting on concerns in the context of large-scale manufacturing that will help us in contextualizing  the role of MSMEs appropriately. He presented the relationship between productivity and employment and how capital-intensive technology grows very fast

Prof B K Sahoo, the last panelist, shared data on firm size and employment distribution in small firms. He said that probably we are romanticizing that small is beautiful in terms of MSMEs. He shared a database that female firm owners are more prevalent in agriculture and manufacturing as compared to retail, services, and infrastructure.

ESOP stands for Employee Stock Ownership Plan. An employee stock ownership plan gives
workers ownership interest in the company. It gives the employees the advantage of buying the
shares of a company after a certain period of time. Employees who have served the organization
for a definite period of time can receive ESOPs; it can be given to the senior executives but there
are companies which give to all their employees. Companies are dangling employee stock option
plans (ESOP) carrot in a bid to hold on to key talent as the industry gears up for the next phase of
growth and large players look to list on the bourses. Many a times it is the start-up companies
which offer Stock Options as they are constrained to pay high salaries to their employees.
Employees rewarded with stocks feel highly motivated and give their best to the organization.
ESOPs will replace the need of the companies to pay cash incentives to their personnel. In the
last ten years the concept of ESOP has become very popular and companies are attracting and
poaching talent using this carrot. The year 2021 has turned out to be a magical year as more than
35 Indian start-ups have entered 100 crore Employee Stock Option Plan Pool.
Giant Indian start-ups like Nykaa, Zomato, Policy Bazaar and Paytm, Flipkart Group, Byju’s and
Ola have entered into the 100 Crore ESOP Pool. In times of talent war, ESOPs have become
very attractive and are used by companies especially start-ups to get the best talent for their
organization. However, ESOPs are taxable and it becomes imperative to know the tax
implications of it. ESOPs are taxed at two different stages
 While exercising – in the form of a perquisite: in this option the difference between the fair
market value and exercise price is taxed 
 While selling – in the form of capital gain
The employee can sell the shares received; however, there is a certain amount of time period
after which the employee can buy and then sell the shares. At the time of selling if the employee
gets money higher than that of Fair Market Value then he will be liable to pay the Capital Gains
Tax. The amount of Capital Gains Tax is determined on the period of holding, i.e. from the date
of exercise to the date of sale. Companies which provide Stock Ownership benefit to the
employees must have a proper administration system which works towards providing of Stock
ownership to the employees. If a company does not have proper staff to look into the
administration of Employee Stock Ownership Plan then it could invite certain risk issues. Upon
establishing Employee Stock Ownership Plan, the company must have proper administration,
staff, including third party administration, legal costs and trustees. It must be aware of the costs
that will include while providing this facility.

Some tips to better communicate

  • I –                                        Most Selfish Word                                 Avoid It
  • We –                                    Most Acceptable Word                         Use It
  • Ego –                                   Most Poisonous Word                          Overcome It
  • Love –                                  Most Used Word                                    Value It
  • Smile –                                Most Pleasing Word                               Keep It
  • Rumor –                              Fastest Spreading Word                        Ignore It
  • Success –                            Hardest Working Word                          Achieve It
  • Glory –                                The Worthy Bestowed Upon                 Glorify Yourself                      
  • Jealousy –                           Most Enviable Word                                Distance It
  • Knowledge –                      Most Powerful Word                               Acquire It
  • Friendship –                       Most Valued Word                                   Internalize and Maintain It
  • Bring face to the middle and then release to get the muscles become active enabling face will naturally convey more feeling.
  • Pause to find the word when a difficult message to communicate
  • Focus on rhythm
  • Let thoughts flow, then words will follow
  • Think driving a car and keep foot on the accelerator

 

Example One: Dialogue between Yudhisthir and Yaksha in Mahabharata

This is a famous folk are taken from Mahabharata: One day during the exile, the Pandavas were extremely thirsty and asked Nakula, the youngest of them to get some water soon. Nakula was late to return, one by one the brothers went looking for the other and finally Yudhisthira, the eldest, discovers the four brothers lying dead nearby the pond on his search. Suddenly he hears the voice of Yaksha who warns him not to drink the water from the pond before answering his questions; otherwise, he would also be dead; Yudhishtira agrees and started answering the questions of Yaksha.

  • What makes the sun shine daily? The power of Brahman (Absolute)
  • What does a person need to rescue him from danger? Courage
  • Which science should man study to become wise? A man does not acquire wisdom just by studying the Shastras (sciences) but by associating with wise men and women
  • Is there anything that sustains more nobly than the earth? The mother who gives birth and nurtures her children
  • What is higher than the sky? The Father
  • What is swifter than the wind? Mind
  • What is more weakened than a dry straw? An anguished heart
  • Which is a traveler’s friend? Learning
  • Who is the friend that stays at home? The wife
  • Who accompanies a man on his last journey after death? Dharma accompanies the soul on its lonely journey after death
  • What is happiness? Happiness is the fruit of good conduct
  • What is that if a person discards and is then loved by all? Pride
  • The loss of what results in joy not sorrow? Anger
  • The abandonment of what makes a man rich? Desire
  • Who is really a helpful companion?Steady intelligence is a very good friend and can save one from all dangers
  • How can one acquire something very great?Everything desirable can be attained by the performance of austerity
  • What is amrita (nectar)?Milk is just like nectar
  • What is the friend bestowed upon man by the demigods?Wife is such a friend
  • What is the best of happiness?True happiness comes as a result of contentment
  • Why does one give in charity to brahmanas, artists, servants and kings?

            For religious merit, prestige, maintenance and protection, respectively

  • Why does one forsake friends?Lust and greed drives one to forsake friends
  • What is the only food?The cow is the only food, for the milk that she produces is used to make ghee (clarified butter), which is used to perform sacrifices, pleased by which the demigods give rain, which causes the grains to grow. Therefore, it should be understood that the cow is the root cause of all kinds of food
  • What is the king of knowledge?Knowledge pertaining to the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the king of all kinds of knowledge
  • What is ignorance? Not knowing one’s constitutional duty
  • What is the best bath?That which cleanses the mind of all impurities
  • What is real charity?Real charity is protecting one from the onslaughts of material nature
  • Since dharma (virtue), artha (profit) and kama (desire) are opposed to each other, how can they co-exist harmoniously?These three become congenial to one another when one has a virtuous wife
  • Who is condemned to everlasting hell?When one promises a brahmana charity but upon his arrival refuses to give him charity
  • What make one a brahmana, birth, learning or behavior? It is behavior alone that makes a person a brahmana. Even one who is expert in the four Vedas, born of brahmana parents, but whose behavior is not proper, should be considered a sudra
  • Who is pleasing?A person who speaks in a pleasing manner
  • What is the most wonderful thing?The most amazing thing is that even though every day one sees countless living entities dying, s/he still acts and thinks as if s/he will live forever
  • What is the real path to follow in this life?The best path is to follow in the footsteps of the pure devotees, for they are the actual Mahajanas whose hearts are the sitting places of the real truths regarding religion

These questions and answers cover a wide gamut of instructions from being successful to pious to religious. Pleased by the answers of Yudhisthira, the Yaksha who was none other than Dharmaraja (the father of Yudhisthira and the embodiment of religiosity) revives all the brothers of Yudhisthira and offers him many benedictions.

Example Two: Reply to a Teacher by JRD Tata

 

Mr. K.C. Bhansali, a School Teacher from Kolkata on September 13, 1965 wrote a letter to Sri JRD Tata, Chairman of Tata Sons wherein the teacher enquired what the guiding principles of his life were. JRD was 62 then and 27 years had passed he assumed charge as Chairman of the Tata Group. By then, he had already given the country its first commercial airline Tata Airlines (now Air India and again gone back to the Tatas); guided the establishment of Tata Motors which then called TELCO and given India the Bombay Plan, the country’s first comprehensive economic plan along with three other prominent industrialists. Also Tata Memorial Hospital and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, two iconic Institutions of National Importance, had been established during his tenure as Chairman. Though JRD was caught up in busy schedule, he took time to craft out the following detailed and thoughtful response:

Dear Mr. Bhansali,

I thank you for your letter of the 6th August enquiring what have been the guiding principles which have kindled my path and my career. I do not consider myself to be an “illustrious personality”, but only an ordinary businessman and citizen who has tried to make the best use of the opportunities to advance the cause of India’s industrial and economic development. Any such guiding principles I might unconsciously have had in my life can be summarized as follows:

That nothing worthwhile is ever achieved without deep thought and hard work; that one must think for oneself and never accept at their face value slogans and catch phrases to which, unfortunately, our people are too easily susceptible ; that one must forever strive for excellence, or even perfection, in any task however small, and never be satisfied with the second best ; that no success or achievement in material terms is worthwhile unless it serves the needs or interests of the country and its people, and is achieved by fair and honest means and that good human relations not only bring great personal rewards but are essential to the success of any enterprise.

Yours Sincerely
JRD Tata

The letter puts forward six independent principles which are enmeshed with each other:

  • Creating a good, successful and fulfilling life by hard work, thoughtfulness, excellence, ethical behavior, good human relations and putting the nation first. JRD has drawn these excellent principles not from any fancy theoretical construct but from his own life experiences which are always the best teachers.

The letter echoes with every reader; in fact each of these principles can be practiced in our own life, wherever we are, and whatever profession we chose. All of us wish to work hard and would like to be thoughtful. We often wish we could push ourselves, even more, to attain excellence, even perfection, in everything we do and many of us aspire to do something impactful for our nation.  And, finally, this letter is very simple to understand, management jargons are totally absent. JRD has written these guiding principles in simple, straightforward, yet perfect English which is an excellent read. This is the art of simplicity in communication that we often forget when we unnecessarily envelope ourselves into the jargon and hyperbole of the corporate world.

Less is known about the first speech of Swami Vivekananda in the United States which he delivered about a fortnight before his historic Chicago address on September 11, 1893. The residents of Annisquam (Massachusetts), a quiet seacoast village about 65 kilometers north of Boston, to this day remember him as a Hindu monk whose wisdom and intuition far exceeded than that of a Harvard Professor. “I think the impression that he (Swami Vivekananda) left was that here is someone from a culture so distinct; from a religion so different and yet his wisdom, his intelligence, exceeded even the wisdom-intelligence that they thought was here… of the Harvard” says Rev Koehler-Arsenault, Pastor of the historic Annisquam Village Church. She is now the Pastor of the Village Church where Swami Vivekananda delivered his first speech on American soil on August 27, 1893. The lectern, from where Swami Vivekananda addressed the jam-packed church on a Sunday in August 1893, is probably the only thing left of the historic day but his speech continues to resonate in this village and the residents feel that they are fortunate to be in the history.

Though the text of his speech has been lost with the tide of history, the pastor says it is believed that the Swami spoke about India’s cultural diversity, the country; his speech at this church was not about Hinduism, which was the theme of his historic speech at the World Parliament of Religion in Chicago on September 11, 1893. His talk here was less about Hinduism but more about the culture and the practices of the people of India.

Swami Vivekananda came to this village at the invite of a Harvard Professor having struck an instant friendship during a train ride in Boston. The Harvard Professor John Henry Wright had a summer home in this village. During their conversation Prof Wright said Swami Vivekananda did not have enough resources to go from Boston to Chicago to address the World Parliament of Religion so invited him to come with him to Annisquam so that he could address the villagers and the occasion could be used to raise funds for his Chicago trip. Swami Vivekananda returned to this village a year later and stayed for about two weeks in 1894.

A month after his famous speech in Chicago, Swami Vivekananda wrote to the Harvard Professor and addressed him as “Dear Adhyapakji”. As per a copy of the letter now in possession of the Annisquam Historical Society, Swami Vivekananda first regretted to Prof Wright not having written to him earlier as he remained busy for the Chicago address. “In the first place I dropped in on the Congress in the eleventh hour and (was) quite unprepared and that kept me very, very busy for some time. Secondly, I was speaking almost every day in the Congress and had no time to write, and lastly and greatest of all, my kind friend, I owe so much to you that it would have been an insult to your Ahetuka (unselfish friendship) to have written you business-like letters in a hurry,” Swami Vivekananda wrote to Professor Wright. “The Congress is now over, and Dear Brother I was so afraid to stand before that great assembly of fine speakers and thinkers from all over the world and speak, but the Lord gave me strength and I almost every day heroically faced the platform and the audience,” he wrote. “If I have miserably failed- I knew that beforehand for I am hopelessly ignorant. Your friend Professor Bradley was very kind to me and he always cheered me on and on! Everybody is so kind here to me, there is nothing that is beyond my power of expression. Glory unto Him in the highest; in whose sight the poor ignorant monk from India is the same as the learned divine of this mighty land,” Swami Vivekananda wrote.

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